Probably no part of an engine undergoes greater thermal shock than pistons and valves. Yet this has no effect on the bonding properties of HPC’s TBC which has the same coefficient of expansion as aluminium. Particles are bonded with an inorganic binder which is unaffected by petroleum products. With a bond strength of 10,000 psi, this coating’s non-porous ceramic matrix improves flame travel and combustion efficiency as well as reduces oil temperature and prevents carbon buildup. HPC’s TBC process also prevents excessive heat from reaching the piston rings reducing radial tension loss due to the ring overheating. TBC applied to the combustion face of the valve prevents overheating of the exhaust valve and heat transfer from the intake valve to incoming cool air and fuel, thus providing a denser air/fuel charge. The process works equally well on both two-cycle and four-cycle pistons, is applicable to new and used parts and is repeatable.